Tuesday, May 15, 2018

The Principles of War from the Quran




By Naseer Ahmed, New Age Islam
18 January 2018
The Quran is a universal religion with a message for all the people:
 (21:107) We sent thee not, but as a Mercy for all the people.(12:104, 38:87, 68:52, 81:27) "This is no less than a Message to (all) the Worlds.
While the revelation has a context and the Book can be best described as experiential learning, the general principles that can be easily derived are applicable to all people irrespective of their faith. The Quran provides comprehensive guidance on waging war in the cause of Allah.
The Principles of war that are derived by considering all the verses on fighting are clear and free from ambiguity. None of the verses make an exception based on the times and circumstances of the Prophetic mission of Muhammad (pbuh). The principles are therefore eternal and based as these are on Divine guidance and inspiration, are common to all the scriptures and may be taken as guidance by all the people whether they follow the religion of Islam or not. The clear, unambiguous principles are:
1. There is no compulsion in religion. Any form of coercion in religion or prevention from following one’s religion peacefully, constitutes persecution.
2. War is mandated to end any kind of oppression against any people. The oppression may be religious persecution or any other form of oppression. The faith of the oppressor and the oppressed is immaterial.
3. Only a ruler with a territory and people under his political authority can wage war. Civil war is not permissible. And only people in the territory ruled by such a ruler can participate in the war effort. People residing in territory under the control of the oppressor, must migrate from that territory first, if they wish to join the war effort against the oppressor.
4. The only justifiable cause for making war is to fight against the oppressors to end oppression. There is no other justifiable cause.
The major battles fought by the Prophet against the people of Mecca were against their persecution of the Prophet and followers of the new faith of Islam. After his people suffered torture, persecution and even killing for 13 years, the Prophet (pbuh) was forced to migrate to Medina. Even then, the Meccans pursued them as is evident by the three major battles fought near Medina with the last battle being the siege of Medina itself. The Muslims eventually prevailed over their enemy. Surah Taubah describes the judgment on the vanquished enemy. The General Principles underlying the judgment on the vanquished religious persecutors are as follows:
1.       Let those vanquished persecutors who fought but never violated their treaties, the freedom to practice their faith and live peacefully, if they agree to become your willing subjects.
2.       To those who were treacherous and fought in violation of their treaties, provide protection if they seek protection. Make them hear the word of God and if they still refuse to accept your religion, escort them to a safe place outside your territory.
3.       Those who were treacherous and fought in violation of their treaty, are allowed 4 months of time in which they are free to migrate to a neighbouring country or accept the victor’s faith. Those who remain defiant at the end of the amnesty period may be killed.
As may be seen, the rules are extremely generous. If it was a fair war without violation of treaty, the vanquished simply must accept the new political authority and become willing subjects and can live peacefully practicing his faith. The treacherous violators of treaties can also save their lives by accepting exile or the victor’s faith. These rules are in no way unfair for a people who had fought to annihilate the religion of their victors.
In any other war where religion is not the issue, it is only treachery of the combatants alone that is punishable by death or exile. The remaining people simply must become willing subjects of the victors or may choose to migrate.
Treaties, Alliances and Relations with Other Nations/People

The Quran is unequivocal in advocating peace treaties and treaties of mutual cooperation with other people irrespective of the faith professed by them even if they are your enemy:

(8:61) But if the enemy incline towards peace, do thou (also) incline towards peace, and trust in Allah: for He is One that heareth and knoweth (all things).

The Prophet had treaties with several of the pagan tribes. The Quran attaches the utmost importance to strict observance of treaties so much so, that even if someone from amongst your own people,  commit a crime punishable by death, and then goes over to the people with whom you have a treaty, you cannot touch him. Treaties covering extradition of such people were perhaps not common in those days.

This is a hypothetical situation but if a tribe from among the Mushrikin had said to the Prophet “we do not understand your religion and do not accept it, but we defend your right to practice and preach it, and would like to align ourselves with you in your fight against your persecutors”, the Prophet would have readily entered into a treaty of mutual alliance and cooperation with such people. On being successful against the persecutors, he would have given such an ally a place of honour in the new polity irrespective of whether they accepted Islam. Going by the message of the Quran, such people would have been blessed by Allah with faith in Him, eventually. We can therefore assert the following:

 In Islam, the other is the Kafir, but they are not the non-Muslims but the unjust and the oppressors who could be professing any faith including Islam. The cause of Allah, identified from the Quran, is to end all injustice and oppression, and all those who stand up for justice and fight against oppression are from “the community of God” and the Muslims must form an “Ummat-e-Wahida” or a united front with all such people to end injustice and oppression in the world.
The God of Islam is the God of all the people and is not the parochial God of only the Muslims in our theology for Allah says:
“Nay,-whoever submits His whole self to Allah (by whatever name) and is a doer of good,- He will get his reward with his Lord; on such shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve” (2:112).
The Muslim of the Quran, is therefore simply anyone who submits to God (by whatever name), and is a doer of good deeds. There are therefore only two kinds of people - those who stand for justice and against oppression are the friends and helpers of God and the oppressors are the enemies of humanity and of God. This is the Universal Message of the Quran.
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Naseer Ahmed is an Engineering graduate from IIT Kanpur and is an independent IT consultant after having served in both the Public and Private sector in responsible positions for over three decades. He is a frequent contributor to NewAgeIslam.com

The Momineen and the Kafirin




By Naseer Ahmed, New Age Islam
15 January 2018
Muhammad (pbuh) was the last of the messengers. He was an Ummi prophet sent to an Ummi people. The word Ummi means those without scriptures or from among the people to whom no messenger had come before, and was therefore without scriptures and guidance.
 (62:2) It is He Who has sent amongst the Ummi a messenger from among themselves, to rehearse to them His Signs, to sanctify them, and to instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom,- although they had been, before, in manifest error;-
(36:6) In order that thou mayest admonish a people, whose fathers had received no admonition, and who therefore remain heedless (of the Signs of Allah).
(37:156) Or have ye an authority manifest?(157) Then bring ye your Book (of authority) if ye be truthful!
From the above verses, and from the fact that the Quran says that Prophets have been sent to many nations (6:42), and the fact that every other civilized people have their religion and scriptures, makes all such people, the “People of the Book”.  The universalism of the religion of Islam, and its inclusiveness of all other people, is obvious from the following verses:
(2:112) Nay,-whoever submits His whole self to Allah and is a doer of good, - He will get his reward with his Lord; on such shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.
(5:69) Those who believe (in the Qur´an), those who follow the Jewish (scriptures), and the Sabians and the Christians,- any who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and work righteousness,- on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.
The Momineen (faithful) and the Kafirin (faithless) are therefore terms that cannot be associated based on the religion professed, but based on behaviour alone. Else, Islam is not a universal and inclusive religion. Indeed, we do find the Quran judging people by what they do. The Mushrikin in an unjust battle against the Prophet, are referred to as the Kafaru, but the same Mushrikin, after they have been vanquished and are no longer at war, are referred to simply as Mushrikin in verse 9:5 and not as Kafirin. It is therefore the act that you are engaged in, which defines you in that context.
At one extreme are the Momineen, the people of unshakeable faith, who can never do wrong because they are always mindful of God, and at the other extreme are the Kafirin or “those who will never believe”, the likes of the Pharaoh, Qarun, Haman, Abu Jahl, Abu Lahab etc., who are evil incarnate, always opposed to what is just, right and good. In between fall the rest, who can be judged based on the act they are engaged in, and not based on the faith they profess, or their religious identity. We find the Quran doing exactly this.
(49:14) The desert Arabs say, "We believe." Say, "Ye have no faith; but ye (only)say, ´We have submitted our wills to Allah,´ For not yet has Faith entered your hearts. But if ye obey Allah and His Messenger, He will not belittle aught of your deeds: for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful."
Faith is not simply a matter of saying “I believe”, but a state in which one is mindful of God, which helps resist the temptation to do wrong, or impels to do what is right and just, irrespective of the consequences to self. Allah guides those who are always mindful of God in their deeds, to attain complete faith in Him. See 8:23. Faith is not achieved by being born into a Muslim family nor by reciting the Kalima alone, or by affiliation to any religion, but by acts that bring one closer to God.
As it concerns the people in general, we can therefore talk only in terms of their deeds – whether their deed is worthy of a Momin, or whether it is the deed of a Kafir, or whether the deed is pleasing to God or one that God would be displeased with. Why then does it shock people, when I said that the Indian Army performed the deed worthy of the Momineen, in liberating the oppressed people of Bangladesh, from their oppressors? The oppressors were the army of Pakistan, raping and killing defenceless civilians and their deeds were certainly the deeds of the faithless or the Kafirin. People are shocked, because the Indian army is thought to be a Hindu army, and the Pakistan army a Muslim army, and in our bigoted theology, Kafir has come to mean a non-Muslim and Momin is always a Muslim. In our bigoted theology, a Muslim can never be a Kafir, even though the Quran uses the term Kafir, to describe Muslims who consume usury and those who do not give charity and the Munafiqin or the hypocrites.   And if just about anyone who submits to Allah and is a doer of good will be rewarded with Heaven, why cannot such a person be called a Momin irrespective of his religious identity?
Let us consider the adjuration at the beginning of Surah 95:
(1) By the Fig and the Olive,
(2) And the Mount of Sinai,
(3) And this City of security,-
(4) We have indeed created man in the best of moulds,
(5) Then do We abase him (to be) the lowest of the low,-
(6) Except such as believe and do righteous deeds: For they shall have a reward unfailing.
(7) Then what can, after this, contradict thee, as to the judgment (to come)?
(8) Is not Allah the wisest of judges?
The City of Security is easily recognizable as Mecca since it is a sanctuary from the days of Abraham and is associated with Islam; the Mount of Sinai is associated with Moses or Judaism. What about the Fig and the Olive? Are these fruits that Allah is recommending? If that were so, it would be a horrible mixing up of unrelated metaphors! The Olive and the Fig must therefore necessarily refer to two other religions. The Mount of Olive is associated with Jesus or Christianity, and the Fig is referring to the Fig tree under which Buddha meditated and received enlightenment or with Buddhism. Why is God swearing by these four religions if these are not a few of the different paths to Him?
5:48 “…..To each among you have we prescribed a law and an open way. If Allah had so willed, He would have made you a single people, but (His plan is) to test you in what He hath given you: so strive as in a race in all virtues. The goal of you all is to Allah; it is He that will show you the truth of the matters in which ye dispute;”
What is common to all the four religions? All the four religions have a clear deontological or rule based moral code. What is uncommon? Buddhism is relatively agnostic about belief in God but strong on its moral code. I repeat, faith is not attained by saying I believe, but by following the path that is steep, which is the path of living a moral life and described as follows:
(90:10) And shown him the two highways?
(11) But he hath made no haste on the path that is steep.
(12) And what will explain to thee the path that is steep?-
(13) (It is:) freeing the bondman;
(14) Or the giving of food in a day of privation
(15) To the orphan with claims of relationship,
(16) Or to the indigent (down) in the dust.
(17) Then will he be of those who believe, and enjoin patience, (constancy, and self-restraint), and enjoin deeds of kindness and compassion.
(18) Such are the Companions of the Right Hand.
What is emphasized above? Good deeds. Anyone who practices the deeds described above, will attain complete faith in God and those who do not, will not attain such faith. And all the deeds described above are emphasized in the four religions mentioned.
What Allah clearly wants from us humans, is that we follow His deen or Laws or Religion which is the moral way of living. It is through such practice, that one can attain faith, and not simply by saying “I believe”.
Just imagine what would happen if the Muslims were to follow what I say. All of them would then be on the path of trying to attain perfection in their deeds to get closer to God and urging others to do the same. This is exactly what Allah wants us to do in Surah 103 Al-Asr:
(103:1) By (the Token of) Time (through the ages),(2) Verily Man is in loss,(3) Except such as have Faith, and do righteous deeds, and (join together) in the mutual teaching of Truth, and of Patience and Constancy.
They would also then openly hail the good deeds of others as the acts of a Momin irrespective of the person’s religious affiliation gaining their respect and admiration. This would attract others to Islam and its teachings. What do we have now? We call ourselves Momin although we have become among the worst people on this earth and call others Kafir although they are better than us in many ways. Who then wants to be such a Momin? Have we not become the worst enemies of Islam and distorted the religion beyond recognition with our bigoted vision?
Naseer Ahmed is an Engineering graduate from IIT Kanpur and is an independent IT consultant after having served in both the Public and Private sector in responsible positions for over three decades. He is a frequent contributor to NewAgeIslam.com
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The Enlightening Commentary on the War Related Quranic Verses- Part 2



By Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi, New Age Islam
26 February 2018
In the first part, we mentioned two apparently conflicting statements to decide between two verses 2:190 and 22:39, as to which one of them was the first revealed to permit fighting. We knew earlier that the verse (2:190) is considered to be the first in the chronological order of revelation to permit fighting and that the same is the preponderant statement (qaul-e-rajih), while others differ from this statement and regard 22:39 as the first verse which permitted fighting. We also presented therein some possible reasons to reconcile [tatbiq] these two conflicting statements. Now in this second part, we will think over the verse 22:39 which is additionally known as another verse to permit fighting.
Allah the Most High says,
“Permission (to fight in defence) is granted to those against whom (aggressive) war is waged. (This permission is granted to them) because they were oppressed and Allah is doubtlessly All-Powerful to help them (the oppressed) (22:39). They are those who were unjustly expelled from their homes simply because they said: ‘Our Lord is Allah.’ And had Allah not been repelling one (aggressive) class of human society by the other (through defensive struggle), the cloisters (temples), synagogues, churches and mosques (i.e., religious centres and places of worship of all religions) would have been ruined where Allah’s Name is abundantly commemorated. And whoever helps (the Din [Religion] of) Allah, Allah surely helps him. Allah is indeed All-Powerful, Ever-Dominant.” (22:39-40)
This verse 22:39 indicates that it is categorically forbidden to beat or kill anyone without the permission of Allah Almighty. This was the reason that when Hadrat Moses (peace be upon him) hit the Qubti a blow in anger, which killed him, he himself said, “This is devilish work”. He said so because he was not permitted by Allah to fight the infidels. (Tafsir Ruhul Bayan 22:39). The verse 22:39 implies that the permission of fighting in defence was granted to those who were oppressed and had already been expelled from their homes “simply because they said: “Our Lord is Allah”. 
Commenting on the cause of revelation (shane nuzul) of this verse (22:39), Mufti Naeemuddin Muradabi writes,  
The infidels were persecuting the Noble Companions in the sacred city of Makkah. Every day the Noble Companions would come in the presence of the holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in a state where either someone’s head was broken, or hand was badly damaged, or someone’s fool was bandaged. They were trying to seek permission from the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) to retaliate but Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) would exhort them to exercise patience as Allah Almighty had not as yet granted permission for Jihad- to wage war against the infidels. After arrival in Madina, this verse was revealed, after which permission was granted to the Noble Companions for Jihad. (Tafsir-e-Khazainul Irfan on Kanzul Iman-22:39)
In this verse the permission of fighting in defence was granted to the noble companions of the prophet (peace be upon him), but were first commanded to have patience when facing the oppression of the Arab’s infidels. Interpreting this verse 22:39, Ibn Zayd said, “ten years after the command of forgiving polytheists and disbelievers [mushrikin and kuffar] had been issued, this verse 22:39 was revealed to permit fighting in defence (Jamiul Bayan 19100/Tibyan al-Quran vol. 7, p. 763)
Allama Peer Karam Shah Azhari writes commenting on the verse 22:39, 
For disseminating the Divine Message and inviting the pagan Arabs to affirm their belief in the Oneness of Allah, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) climbed the hillock Safa. In response, they flew into a rage and were violently opposed to him. Surprisingly enough, the same people who once held him in a high esteem and applauded him to be the most truthful and trustworthy person had then stooped to brand him as crazy poet and mischief-monger. Everything went topsy-turvy. Those who embraced the religion chosen for them by Allah were subjected to all sorts of indignities and persecutions. Hadrat Bilal was rolled on the glowing embers. Yasir and his wife Samiya were wounded with spears. Not to speak of the poor and the helpless, even the blue-blooded could not go unmolested. For instance, Osman’s uncle would tightly wrap him in a fresh animal skin, and throw him in the scorching sun. The searing sun, profuse sweat and foul smell of the skin would choke his breath and be unbearably excruciating and painful. Similarly, Abu Bakr was once subjected to such a cruel and painful torture that he lay unconscious for a long time.
Besides inflicting physical torture, they stooped to make them the butts of their playful jokes. They raised baseless objections to the verses revealed by Allah, derided the injunctions of Shariat. In brief, they left no stone unturned. Although the Muslims suffered heartless oppression, torture and abuse for thirteen years, yet they were not allowed to exact a measure of retaliation. They were commanded to persevere patiently. During the thirteenth year after the declaration of his Prophet-hood, Allah commanded the prophet (peace be upon him) and his companions to migrate. They carried out Allah’s command worshipfully and migrated to Yathrib –nearly 300 miles away from Makkah. Still the animosity of the inveterate enemies of Islam had not subsided. They inflicted fresh injuries on the Muslims; robbed them of the peace of mind and heart. A band of pagan Arabs would raid the pastures of the Muslims and take away their cattle. If they encounter a lonely Muslim, they would not hesitate in killing him mercilessly. 
For as long as 14 or 15 years, the Muslims suffered insults, outrages and injuries at the hands of their persecutors. They bore all these indignities with the utmost humility and patience. When the aggression and ruthlessness of the pagan Arabs grew more hotly than ever, Allah granted permission to the believers to take up arms in their own defence and make the mischief-loving pagan Arabs believe that the torch of Islam – that lights up darkness – would never be allowed to be blown out. Likewise the flag held aloft for the dissemination of the truth will never be let down, however hot they might grow. This torch will remain lit until the doomsday. And the flag of the truth will continue to flutter so long as the world exits. (Zia-ul-Quran, Vol: 3; p.218)
Having taken into account the cause of revelation [shan e nuzul] and context of the afore-mentioned Quranic verse 22:39, we need to go forward to tackle the most important issue. The modern terrorist organizations are applying the Quranic verses and ahadith to implement the anti-Shariat matters, that is, to implement the forbidden acts. There is no doubt that we find numerous Quranic verses and ahadith which deal with the war-related situations. However it should also be noted that if we gather all the Quranic verses and ahadith together and apply the right methodological approaches in order to understand the purpose of Islam, we will indeed find, with the blessing of Allah Almighty, that Islam aims merely at eliminating oppression, establishing peace, justice and tranquillity. However this does not mean that any country or organization should commit oppression in the name of eradicating oppression, or kills the innocent civilians in the name of protecting the citizens of any country. Islam categorically prohibits such an act.   
From the verse mentioned above (22:39), it has become clear that the permission of fighting was granted only to those who were oppressed and expelled from their homes simply because they said, “Our Lord is Allah” and accepted Islam. Later the fighting took place between Muslims and the Arab pagans. This fighting was the result of the kuffar’s oppressing the Muslims. When the oppression was eliminated and the Muslims got all-freedom to practice their religion [the Din of Allah] and when they had two options; either to live peacefully or to wage war, they preferred peace-treaty to war. After the conquest of Makkah, the extraordinary rights that were given to the non-Muslims are as under: freedom of religion, protection of life, wealth and respect. As long as there was a peace-treaty among Muslims and non-Muslims, they lived peacefully. In today’s context, we have full freedom to practice our Islam. Therefore it is immensely necessary that we practice our Islam in our homes, living peacefully with all other fellow citizens. No matter whether Muslims live in minority or majority, wherever they have peace-agreement or something like that in any form of the law, it is forbidden to violate that type of peace-agreement. It is clearly reported in numerous books of ahadith and fiqh that if any Muslim kills the peaceful citizens from among the non-Muslims, “he shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise though its fragrance can be smelt at a distance of forty years (of travelling)”. This hadith implies that the violator of the peace-treaty shall be given punishment in the Hereafter. In the first part of the article, we quoted the Quranic verse which reads, “And fulfil the covenant [promise]. Verily the covenant will be questioned about” (17:34). The word ‘covenant’ also applies to the treaty of peace the violator of which will be questioned. 
This article as a whole teaches the terrorist organizations that they cannot derive from the above mentioned verse (22:39), any sort of justification for committing any act of terrorism, nor for killing Muslims or non-Muslims of any country in order to fulfil their ambitions. Without understanding the real purpose of Islam, if they continuously commit acts of terrorism and kill the innocent civilians, they shall be doing nothing but an act of inventing a lie against Islamic Shariat. Thus they shall become an example of those inventors of a lie who are referred to, in this speech of Allah Almighty, “And who is more unjust than one who invents a lie against Allah” (6:93)
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A regular Columnist with NewAgeIslam.com, Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi Dehlvi is an Alim and Fazil (Classical Islamic scholar) with a Sufi background and English-Arabic-Urdu Translator.
Part one of the article:

The Enlightening Commentary on the War Related Quranic Verses- Part 3 on 4:89



By Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi, New Age Islam
14 March 2018
If there is anything in this world that we can term as the biggest source of terrorism, it is misuse of war-related verses of the Quran and Sunnah, as not only does it lead to killing innocent civilians but also establishing a ground for youth to become terrorists and defame Islam. Muslim Ulema [plural of Alim], therefore, need to interpret these verses in modern context, explaining how these terrorists are harming Islam, Muslims, non-Muslims, their countries and interests. I do not consider myself ‘Alim’ but as a student of Islam, I am humbly trying to present an enlightening commentary on the war-related verses, maintaining the accepted methodological approach to interpreting the Quran. In the previous two parts, we commented on two verses 2:190 and 22:39. In this part, we will discuss the verse of Surah Nisa 4:89, which is also oft-quoted mistakenly by the radical groups for brainwashing the youth and committing terrorist crimes.  
Allah Almighty says,
4:89: “They wish that you reject Faith, as they have rejected (Faith), and thus that you all become equal (like one another). So take not Auliya' (protectors or friends) from them, till they emigrate in the Way of Allah (to Muhammad peace be upon him). But if they turn back, take (hold) of them and kill them wherever you find them, and take neither Auliya' (protectors or friends) nor helpers from them.”
In order to better understand this verse, it is essential to identify those people who have been referred to in this verse. Why the Quran commanded to kill those people? It is also as much necessary to know how come the holy Quran be unjust, while it asks the believers to accept the peace proposal of disbelievers [8:61], fight only against those who oppress people [42:42] uphold justice and kindness [16:90] prefer forgiveness as an option against retaliation [42:40/16:126-128] and which considers killing of one person tantamount to that of all mankind [5:32]? Such are the questions need to be taken into mind, prior to moving forward.
To understand the motif of the verse 4:89 in its entirety, let us now read it along with its both preceding and succeeding verses and we can then find out all answers to the above questions. Allah Almighty says, 
4:88: “Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties about the hypocrites? Allah has cast them back (to disbelief) because of what they have earned. Do you want to guide him whom Allah has made to go astray? And he whom Allah has made to go astray, you will never find for him any way (of guidance).”
4:89: “They wish that you reject Faith, as they have rejected (Faith), and thus that you all become equal (like one another). So take not Auliya' (protectors or friends) from them, till they emigrate in the Way of Allah (to Muhammad peace be upon him). But if they turn back (from Islam), take (hold) of them and kill them wherever you find them, and take neither Auliya' (protectors or friends) nor helpers from them.”
4:90: “Except those who join a group, between you and whom there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with their breasts restraining from fighting you as well as fighting their own people. Had Allah willed, indeed He would have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. So if they withdraw from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace, then Allah has opened no way for you against them.”
Reason for Revelation of the Verse 4:89
This verse is not difficult to understand, especially after reading its reason for revelation [Shan e Nuzul]. According to ‘Ruh ul Bayan’, a famous and widely-accepted classical book of Tafsir, this verse was revealed concerning those hypocrites who did not find the existing conditions in Madina to their liking but left with the holy Prophet (peace be upon him) to participate in the Battle of Badr. On the way they deserted Muslims and went to Makkah in order to join the ranks of the polytheists. There was a difference of opinion amongst the Muslims concerning this group, whether they are hypocrites or as clear infidels, and at an opportune moment, [that is, during fighting] should they be put to death for their treachery or not. In response to this question the above verse was revealed. Hence there is no inconsistency, with regard to the contents of this verse. (Tafsir Ruh ul Bayan)
According to the report mentioned in the book of Tafsir “Ruh ul Ma’ani”, this verse refers to those people who emigrated from Makkah to Madinah and then turned apostates. They requested the beloved prophet [peace be upon him] for permission to return to Makkah, so that they may gather their trading stock and resume business. The Muslims were divided about these people. Some called them hypocrites while others considered them to be Muslims. To resolve their division, Allah revealed the above verse, exposing their hypocrisy and ordering their execution.
According to Hadrat Dhahhak, the verse refers to those people who remained in Makkah. Although they claimed to be Muslims, they did not migrate. Consequently, the Muslims were divided about them. Some considered them to be hypocrites and severed all ties with them. Others maintained their relationship with them. The verse was then revealed to clear the dispute and instructed the Muslims not to associate with them until they migrate.
Having reported these two narrations, the author of ‘Ruh ul Ma’ani’ records the following narration of Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Nasai and Ahmad. It is reported that when the Muslims were marching towards Uhud, a group of hypocrites [Munafiqin] turned back. The Muslims were divided about their condition. Some wanted them killed, while others did not. The above verse was revealed on this occasion, in which Allah says, “Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties about the hypocrites? Allah has cast them back (to disbelief) because of what they have earned. Do you want to guide him whom Allah has made to go astray? And he whom Allah has made to go astray, you will never find for him any way (of guidance” (4:88)
Thereafter, Allah makes mention of the evil schemes of the hypocrites (Munafiqin). Allah says, “They wish that you reject Faith, as they have rejected (Faith), and thus that you all become equal (like one another). So take not Auliya' (protectors or friends) from them, till they emigrate in the Way of Allah (to Muhammad peace be upon him). But if they turn back (from Islam), take (hold) of them and kill them wherever you find them, and take neither Auliya' (protectors or friends) nor helpers from them.” (4:89)
..... “But if they turn back (from Islam), take (hold) of them and kill them wherever you find them....” When considering all the three verses together, it becomes clear that the verses referred to all three types of hypocrites mentioned in the above three narrations. However the execution order did not apply to all of them because the hypocrites of Madinah were not executed.
The order for execution and separation applied to all the hypocrites (Munafiqin) “Except those who join a group, between you and whom there is a treaty (of peace).” [Anwarul Bayan]
Excluded from the instruction of execution are also those who “approach you with their breasts restraining from fighting you as well as fighting their own people. Had Allah willed, indeed He would have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. So if they withdraw from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace, then Allah has opened no way for you against them.” This means that, in this case, the Muslims are not allowed to fight them.
The aforementioned three verses guided the Arabian Muslims of the early period of Islam not to be divided into two groups about the Arabian hypocrites. These verses signified that these hypocrites, because of their misdeeds, were deprived of blessing of guidance. They were those people who hypocritically pretended to be the followers of Islam and friends of Muslims, but inwardly hated and wanted the then Muslims to reject their faith. Some of these hypocrites used to support the Arabian oppressors in war and propaganda against the Muslims. It was therefore God Almighty commanded the Muslims to fight and kill such destructive hypocrites, if they were found in the state of war. Fighting was allowed against those hypocrites who turned oppressors by supporting the Makkan oppressors and not against those hypocrites who joined the group with peace-treaty and restrained from fighting.
In today’s context, when Muslims and non-Muslims including hypocrites are living peacefully, these verses (4:88-90) can’t be applied. It is not an individual’s duty to decide as to who are hypocrites. In the case of the early period of Islam, when the Muslims who were holy companions [Sahaba] were not all sure as to who were then hypocrites and who were not, how come today’s common Muslims categorically call others ‘hypocrites’? Even if we hear some of today’s scholars calling someone ‘hypocrite’, how can one make justification for killing him, while he is living in the state of peace or peace-treaty? The first mistake of today’s radical groups is their applying the war-related verse 4:89 to today’s peaceful environment, in order to kill those who, according to them, are non-Muslims or ‘hypocrite Muslims’, while their second mistake is their intentionally ignoring the next verse 4:90 which says, “those who join a group, between you and whom there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with their breasts restraining from fighting you..” should not be killed. The last part of the same verse again and emphatically says, “So if they [hypocrites] withdraw from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace, then Allah has opened no way for you against them.” [4:90] In short the misuse of war-related verse 4:89 by terrorist ideologues is categorically a great crime, for which they shall have to be accountable on the Day of Judgment.
A regular Columnist with NewAgeIslam.com, Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi Dehlvi is an Alim and Fazil (Classical Islamic scholar) with a Sufi background and English-Arabic-Urdu Translator.
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Jihadist Terrorists Can’t Justify Their Call to Migration




By Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi, New Age Islam
09 April 2018
One of the most misused verses of the Quran by today’s radical Jihadist groups is 72 of the Surah Anfaal. Quoting this verse, they call their ideological followers to migrate and join their ranks. In this brief presentation, this humble writer will expose that today’s jihadist call of migration is antithetical to the spiritual, modern or classical understanding of the verse 8:72. Since this write-up is also a part of my ongoing series “the Enlightening Commentary on the War-Related Verses”, I request the commentators of newageislam.com to participate in the debate under my article and put their relevant questions, as their participation will help me make my series more comprehensive.
Allah Almighty says,
 “Indeed those who accepted faith and left their homes and belongings for Allah, and fought with their wealth and their lives in Allah's cause, and those who gave shelter and provided help, are the heirs of one another; and those who believed but did not leave their homes – you have no right in their estates until they migrate; and if they seek help from you in the matter of religion then it is your duty to provide help, except against the people between whom and you is a treaty; and Allah sees your deeds.” (8:72)
According to the most accepted books of Tafsir both classical and modernist, this verse mainly refers to the Emigrants [Muhajirin] and the Helpers [Ansar] and their mutual ties of brotherhood. As per the modernist Islamic exegete, Rashid Rida the author of Tafsir al-Manar, as quoted by Peer Karam Azhari in his Zia al-Quran, this verse is considered the pillar of fair foreign policy of Islam. The Muslim scholars deduce from this verse that the Muhajir and the Ansaar were heirs among themselves even if they had no blood relation between them and that this injunction was temporal and later abrogated by the verse 8:75 which reads, “And the blood relations are nearer to one another”. For the detailed discussion of inheritance and mutual relations of the early Muslims, the readers can respectively go through the Tafsir books such as Durr-e-Manthur by Imam Jalaluddin Syuti Shafei, Tafsir-e-Qurtubi by Imam Qurtubi Maliki, Tafsir Ruh al-Bayan by Sufi Shaikh Isamel Haqqi, Tafsir-e-Naeemi by Mufti Ahmed Yaar Khan Naeemi Hanafi from “Barelvi School” and Mariful Quran by Mufti Usamni Hanafi from “Deobandi School”.
The Jihadist Terrorists Cannot Justify Their Call to Migration On The Basis Of The Quranic Verse 8:72
The Jihadist terrorists dominantly belong to Wahhabism and hence they call their Wahhabi followers to migrate like the early Emigrants mentioned in the Quranic verse 8:72 and fight against those who they think are Kuffar and non-Wahhabi Muslims. Concerning this verse in today’s context some questions arise. Are today’s Muslims whom they are calling to migrate identical to the early Emigrants? Is it allowed for them to migrate from a country which grants security and religious freedom to them?
Associating the condition of today’s Muslims to that of the early Emigrants mentioned in 8:72 is extremely injustice and violation of the Quran. To clearly understand this point, Let us briefly know about the background of the early Emigrants in the following passages.
Who were these Emigrants mentioned in the verse? They were those Muslims who had no religious freedom in Makkah. These Muslims suffered heartless oppression, torture, and abuse for thirteen years. They were those Muslims who were not allowed to fight even in defence in Makkah but were commanded therein to persevere patiently. Every day these early Muslims would come in the presence of the holy Prophet (peace be upon him) in a state where either someone’s head was broken, or hand was badly damaged. They were those Muslims whose co-religionists had been brutally killed in Makkah.  Hadrat Bilal was rolled on the glowing embers. Yasir and his wife Samiya were wounded with spears. Not to speak of the poor and the helpless, even the blue-blooded could not go unmolested. For instance, Osman’s uncle would tightly wrap him in a fresh animal skin, and throw him in the scorching sun. The searing sun, profuse sweat and foul smell of the skin would choke his breath and be unbearably excruciating and painful.
Similarly, Abu Bakr was once subjected to such a cruel and painful torture that he lay unconscious for a long time. For as long as 14 or 15 years, these Muslims suffered religious persecutions, insults, outrages and injuries at the hands of their persecutors. They bore all these indignities with the utmost humility and patience. When the aggression and ruthlessness of the pagan Arabs grew more hotly than ever, Allah commanded these Muslims to migrate. These Muslims carried out Allah’s command worshipfully and migrated to Yathrib –nearly 300 miles away from Makkah. Still the animosity of the inveterate enemies of Islam had not subsided. They inflicted fresh injuries on the Muslims; robbed them of the peace of mind and heart. A band of pagan Arabs would raid the pastures of the Muslims and take away their cattle. If they encounter a lonely Muslim, they would not hesitate in killing him mercilessly. It was then these Muslims were allowed to fight back in defence and ensure peace and religious freedom.  
Today’s Muslims are living in their respective countries, enjoying significantly rights of security and freedom of religion. The situation they are living in does not match that of the early Emigrants. This is one of the reasons that they do not need to migrate or fight in defence against anyone.
The righteousness of the early Emigrants was guaranteed because they were along with the Prophet –peace be upon him- and because they were commanded by Allah to migrate for their religious freedom and security reasons. Today’s terrorists are not true followers of the prophet (peace be upon him) because like their Wahhabi ideologues, they use blasphemous language against the prophet (peace be upon him) and commit acts of terrorism which are extremely forbidden in Islam.
The early Emigrants emigrated from Makkah which neither guaranteed freedom of religion, nor security of religious life. But today’s terrorists want to call the people from the countries which guarantee them both freedom of religion and security of life. 
The phrase “fought with their wealth” refers to the fact that they were brutally persecuted so much that they had to forsake their wealth and homes. They chose to sacrifice their wealth as they could not live without faith and belief in Allah and His Messenger peace be upon him. Forsaking their wealth, they emigrated to Makkah. It is in that sense they “fought with their wealth”.
The members of ISIS, before its declaration of Islamic state, had full religious rights of worshipping Allah alone, spending their all day and night in remembrance of Allah Almighty and his beloved prophet. They needed neither to fight in defence nor to call anyone to migrate.  But after committing acts of atrocities and terrorism on civilians, they are globally described as the most wanted criminals. It is shocking affairs that they are calling others to become criminals like them in the name of the Quran.
The reading of this verse also sheds light on importance of maintaining treaty or agreement. This signifies that in all cases Muslims need to keep the promise of treaty. Let us understand it in the Indian context, that after the independence of India, the constitution was formed mutually by the support of all Indians that they all will abide by the laws as per the constitution. It is obligatory upon Indian Muslims to the promise of abiding by the constitution. If anyone of them violates this law, he will be termed as criminal in Indian law as well as in Islam, as Allah Almighty says,
“And fulfil the covenant [promise]. Verily the covenant will be questioned about” (17:34).
The last sentence of the verse reads “Allah sees your deeds”. Here is a divine message for the Jihadist terrorists to understand that they can fool the people and cunningly brainwash their followers but they can’t hide their work from Allah because He knows what their deeds.
A regular Columnist with NewAgeIslam.com, Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi Dehlvi is an Alim and Fazil (Classical Islamic scholar) with a Sufi background and English-Arabic-Urdu Translator.
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Refuting the Jihadist Interpretation of Surah Nisa - Verse 89



By Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi, New Age Islam
14 April 2018
One of the verses the extremists quote for calling their ideological followers to fight against the disbelievers and non-Wahhabi Muslims is the verse 89 of Surah Al-Nisa. However by doing so, they are greatly violating the Quran. Let’s see and behold!
Allah Almighty says,
“They (the hypocrites) wish that you reject faith as they have rejected (faith) and thus you all become equal (like one another). So do not make friends with (any of) them until they emigrate in the way of Allah. Then, if they turn back (violate their peace treaty and launch aggression against you), seize them and kill them wherever you find them (during the war), and take not (any of) them either for a friend or for a helper.” (4:89)
This verse refers to the hypocrites who rejected their faith and wanted the believers to reject their faith and become equal like one another. They were hidden traitors who wanted to commit treason against the believers. Therefore this verse asked the believers not to make them their friends “until they emigrate in the way of Allah” in order to prove their sincerity and truthfulness. Until now the first half part of the verse did not ask the believers to seize or kill these hypocrites. But if they turn back by not migrating and by violating their peace-treaty and launching aggression against the believers, it is in that sense the second half of the verse asks the believers “to seize them and kill them” wherever they find them during the war, as the command of this verse can’t be applied outside the war.
Its succeeding verse (4:90) clarifies that this verse 4:89 can’t be applied to those who have made a peace-treaty, no matter whether they are hypocrites or any group of disbelievers. Let us read now the verse 4:90!   
“But (do not fight) those who have allied with a people that between you and them there is a (peace) treaty, or who (losing heart) come to you in such a state that their breasts are afflicted (with this obsession) whether they should fight you or their own people. If Allah had so willed, He (strengthening their hearts) would have given them supremacy over you. Then they would certainly have fought you. So if they keep away from you and do not fight you and send you (a message) for peace, then (in the interest of peace) Allah has left no way open for you (to launch any aggression) against them.” (4:90)  
Having read the afore-mentioned two verses of the Quran, the Islamic nature of war becomes very clear. The war-related verses can’t be applied to the areas or countries where the Muslims and non-Muslims live peacefully under any sort of mutually agreed law or any sort of peace-treaty or constitution. This argument was completely followed and juristically encouraged by the great classical jurists. I am quoting only some of them, as follows;
Violation of Treaty is Not Permissible
“If a peaceful treaty is concluded with the stipulation that there will be no war between parties for one year or so, it should not be violated. It is unlawful to come to war within the stipulated time by breaking the agreement” (Majmaul-anhar, Bahare Shariat, vol: 9, p.137)
There is another Quranic verse 8:72 which significantly teaches the believers to maintain treaty or agreement. That Muslims should keep the promise of treaty in all cases is a universal message. If today’s Muslims have agreed to abide by any constitution, they shall have to keep their promise. Allah Almighty says, “Fulfil the covenant [promise]. Verily the covenant will be questioned about” (17:34).
Injunction of Peaceful Treaty                 
“It is permissible for the Muslims to conclude a peaceful treaty, provided that it is in their favour. If there be a need, the treaty can be concluded even by giving out some wealth. As a matter of expedient measure, it can be broken. But the enemies should be informed of it and fighting should not be begun; just after informing them of the breaking of agreement. There should be an interval sufficient enough for them to make their allies aware of it. This injunction is applicable only when the agreement is broken before the expiry of the stipulated length of time.” (Durre-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar, Bahar e Shariat Vol:9, p.138)
Injunction on Offering Protection to Polytheists
“If a free Muslim man or woman gives shelter to one or a group of polytheists or to the polytheists of a particular town, it is his or her duty to protect his or their life. It is not lawful to kill them, even if the person who gives the shelter is a transgressor, blind or an aged man”. (Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri, Bahar e Shariat)
Injunction on Offering Protection to the Weak Even During War-Times
It is also important to note that the collateral damage is not allowed even during war-times. Islam says, it is strictly forbidden to kill women, children, mad, aged, blind, crippled, and lame men, priests, monks, retiring in the worship houses and those whose right hands are either chopped off or affected by rickets, provided that they do not come to avail the enemies. (Durre Mukhtar, Bahar e Shariat, Vol:9, p.137). Such views of the Islamic jurists are based on the following Ahadith;
(1)      “Do not kill any child, any woman, or any elder or sick person.” (Sunan Abu Dawud)
(2)      “Do not practice treachery or mutilation. (Muwatta Malik)
(3)      “Do not destroy the villages and towns, do not spoil the cultivated fields and gardens, and do not slaughter the cattle.” (Sahih Bukhari; Sunan Abu Dawud)
(4)      “Do not kill the monks in monasteries, and do not kill those sitting in places of worship. (Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal)
(5)      “Do not uproot or burn palms or cut down fruitful trees.(Al-Muwatta)
(6)      “Do not wish for an encounter with the enemy; pray to Allah to grant you security; but when you [are forced to] encounter them, exercise patience.” (Sahih Muslim)
(7)      “No one may punish with fire except the Lord of Fire.” (Sunan Abu Dawud).
To sum up, we can say that the war-related verses are limited to war-times only. Only the state or a government of a country can execute the rulings and laws of war. Individuals or citizens are not allowed to wage war against any group or take laws in hands. Moreover, the war-related verses can’t be applied to the countries where Muslims and non-Muslims are living under their mutual agreement or any sort of peace-treaty or constitution. Therefore, the extremists can’t quote the verse 4:89 to justify their acts in any way. Similarly it would be a great crime, on the part of their followers, to support the call of the extremists. 
A regular Columnist with NewAgeIslam.com, Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi Dehlvi is an Alim and Fazil (Classical Islamic scholar) with a Sufi background and English-Arabic-Urdu Translator.
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An Enlightening Commentary on the War Related Quranic Verses- Part-1 on 2:190



By Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi, New Age Islam
24 February 2018
The situation of 21st century is remarkably different from that of the early period of Islam. Over the course of time, human minds have witnessed various examples of flexibility in Islamic rulings. We can read out numerous examples of Islamic rulings which were initially applicable but cannot be applied now to this present century. Each Islamic ruling comes into effect for fulfilling certain objectives. After the objectives are achieved, the rulings become invalid or are postponed. Even the common readers have now started knowing that some Islamic rulings or legal values [Ahkamat] are conditional, contextual, specific and exceptional. They have also known that some Islamic rulings are universal, general and absolute and can never be changed. The detailed knowledge, in this regard, can be gained from books related to Sciences of Islamic Laws, Tafsir and Hadith.
But sadly enough, we see some people, especially the terrorist masterminds who, despite having awareness, do not adopt the entirety of what is known as the best methodological approach required for interpreting the Quran and Sunnah. Thus they fail to take out the best meaning. Since they are committing such a failure in context of war-related verses and Ahadith, it has become more a matter of worry for us, because this is increasing problems in two ways. First problem is that this is resulting into brainwashing the naive Muslim youngsters with the idea that it is incumbent upon them to wage war against their ‘enemies’. Second problem is that this is encouraging non-Muslims to believe that whatever the modern terrorists are doing is thoroughly approved by the Quran and Sunnah. To a great extent, these two problems together are creating the third problem, that is, even some of the moderate people from among the Muslims and non-Muslims can be seen waging the war of words and blaming one another for terrorist activities. Affected by these three faces of the problem, our common readers who honestly and objectively want to read Islam but are incapable of distinguishing between what Islam teaches and what it prohibits concerning the war-related verses. Feeling the very problems in mind, a friend of mine has urged me to write an enlightening commentary on the war-related verses of the Quran, and how they should be best interpreted to curb modern terrorism and how they can work to reform the already brainwashed people.
The purpose of my writing this series of articles is mainly built on reforming the two terror-influenced groups; one that seeks to join the terrorist queues and damage the global peace, and other that is blaming Islam for the terrorist attacks.
Prior to initiating this commentary of war-related verses, I had to go through all the required academic methodologies and investigations. I adopted the classical methodologies of Sciences of Tafsir (Ilm al-Tafsir), Hadith (Ilm al-Hadith) and of Islamic Laws (Usul al-Fiqh) which are necessary for getting all-round understanding of any Islamic ruling derived from the Quran and Sunnah. But in this commentary, I have avoided presenting the detailed scholastic discussion, necessarily taking into account the minds of the common readers.  
Let us begin this first part with what is known as the first war-related Quranic verse 2:190 which reads, “And fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you, but do not transgress. Truly Allah loves not the transgressors.” (2:190).
This verse (2:190) is considered by some to be the first in the chronological order of revelation to permit fighting. Ibn Jarir Tabari narrates with his full chain of narration on the authority of ar-Rabi’ that this was the first verse revealed to permit fighting. Others differ from this view and regard 22:39 as the first verse for this matter. It is reported that Abu Bakr as-Siddiq said that the first verse revealed about fighting was the verse in Surah Haj (22:39), which is translated as, “Permission is granted to those against whom the disbelievers wage war, as they are being wronged; and indeed Allah is Able to assist them” (22:39). Allama Qurtabi wrote in his book of Tafsir that this verse (22:39) is more frequently cited as being the first. However the preponderant statement [Qaul-e-Rajih] among scholars is that the verse 2:190 is the first in this regard. To make agreement between two conflicting statements, some possible reasons are presented. One reason is that the verse 2:190 was first revealed in reality while the verse 22:39 was first-additionally revealed. Other reason is that, the narrators of the cause of revelation [Shan e Nuzul] of the verse 22:39 might not have been present near the beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) during revelation of the first war-related verse 2:190, and accordingly they narrated what they respectively witnessed at first.
However there is no disagreement that, before the revelation of 2:190 or 22:39, fighting was forbidden in Makkah and initially in Madina. As per “Tibyan al-Quran” authored by Allama Ghulam Rasool Saeedi, the Quranic verses which initially debarred Muslims from fighting in defence are as follows;
“Repel evil with the best deeds; We well know the matters that they fabricate”. (23:96)
“So forgive them and excuse them; indeed Allah loves the virtuous”. (5:13)
“And be patient over what they say and avoid them with gracious avoidance”. (73:10)
“Then if they turn away, O dear Prophet, (Mohammed – peace and blessings be upon him) upon you is nothing but to clearly convey (the message)”. (16:82)
“Therefore advise; indeed you are a proclaimer of advice. (The Holy Prophet is a Remembrance from Allah.) You are not at all a guardian over them”. (88:21-22)
“And you are not one to use force over them” (50:45)
But with the revelation of 2:190, fighting was allowed against those who initiated fighting; “And fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you, but do not transgress. Truly Allah loves not the transgressors.” (2:190).
This first command for fighting was revealed in connection with the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah. It is reported that in 6 A.H/628, the beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) went out with his companions from Madinah to Makkah for performing ‘Umrah. When they camped at Hudaybiyyah near Makkah, the Makkans came and prevented them from continuing on into Makkah. So the Muslims remained there for a month. Then they made a treaty stipulating that they would turn back the following year for three days and perform the ‘Umrah and that there would be no fighting among them. Having concluded the Treaty, they came back to Madinah. Then, as the time for that approached, Muslims feared treachery of the Makkan pagans and being called upon to fight in the sacred precinct [Haram] during the sacred months. This verse 2:190 was then revealed to set the rules of war, meaning that Muslims are allowed to fight if the Arab pagans initiate fighting with them. We already know that in the initial days, Muslims were brutally tortured, murdered and driven out of their homes, but despite that, as the above Quranic verses testify to this fact, they were commanded to have patience and pardon their enemies, but now since they have made a treaty and are feeling treachery of the Makkans, Muslims are therefore allowed to fight them in their defence.  
There are two statements about this verse 2:190; one group of scholars say that this verse has been abrogated by 9:5, while Ibn Zyad and ar-Rabi say this was abrogated by 9:36, but another group including Umar ibn ‘Abdul Aziz and Mujahid said that this verse is Muhkam whose judgment remains all-time operative and means: “fight those who fight you and do not transgress by killing women, children, monks etc”.
It is reported in Tafsir Qurtubi that, as per an-Nahhas, the position of this verse being Muhkam is sound both in terms of Sunnah and logic. As for the Sunnah, Ibn ‘Umar reports a Hadith that, during one of his expeditions, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) saw a woman who had been killed, he abhorred that and forbade the killing of women and children. As for logic, this applies to children and those like them, like monks, the chronically ill, old men and peasants who should not be killed. (Qurtubi)
Ibn Abbas said “….do not transgress” (2:190) means “Do not kill women, children, old men, or those who offer peace and restrain their hand. If you do that, you will have transgressed against them” (Tafsir Tabari).
In one of his letters, the Umayyad Caliph ‘Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz commented on the verse 2:190 and wrote that it means “do not fight those who do not fight you” (Tabari).
It is reported that Hadrat Ali (may be Allah pleased with him) said, “Do not initiate the war as long as they do not fight you, because you are the followers of Truth.” (Nahjul Balagh p.453)
Explaining the verse 2:190, a famous Indian Sufi theologian Madani Miyan says in his book of Tafsir, that during wartimes you need to implement justice. Do not kill the peaceful citizens, do not destruct the populated areas, hospitals, places of worship and do not mutilate. (Tafsir-e-Ashrafi)
The scholars who consider this verse 2:190 Muhkam set the rules of war with support of the following instructions given by the beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) to his soldiers in the state of war; 
(1)      “Do not kill any child, any woman, or any elder or sick person.” (Sunan Abu Dawud)
(2)      “Do not practice treachery or mutilation. (Muwatta Malik)
(3)      “Do not destroy the villages and towns, do not spoil the cultivated fields and gardens, and do not slaughter the cattle.” (Sahih Bukhari; Sunan Abu Dawud)
(4)      “Do not kill the monks in monasteries, and do not kill those sitting in places of worship. (Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal)
(5)      “Do not uproot or burn palms or cut down fruitful trees. (Al-Muwatta)
(6)      “Do not wish for an encounter with the enemy; pray to Allah to grant you security; but when you [are forced to] encounter them, exercise patience.” (Sahih Muslim)
(7)      “No one may punish with fire except the Lord of Fire.” (Sunan Abu Dawud).
A Brief Summary for Reforming the Brainwashed Youth
The points derived from the verse 2:190 can be shortly summarised that this verse was the first revealed to permit fighting. As a Muhkam verse, this sets the guidelines for defence and prohibits every sort of transgression. In this 21st century, the people have made certain laws for promoting peaceful coexistence and maintaining peace-treaties, therefore, the war should not be initiated against any peace-seekers. The modern terrorists are transgressing the limits set by Allah Almighty and detailed by the beloved prophet (peace be upon him) as mentioned above in the verse 2:190 and a number of Ahadith. In the Shariat terminology, they are transgressing the limits of Allah, by initiating the war against the peaceful citizens, killing children, women, chronically ill, old men, bombing the populated areas and punishing the innocent civilians with fire. These are the crimes they are committing by making the strictly forbidden acts lawful, and thus they are inventing falsehood about Allah. Do they forget at such a time the Quranic warnings, such as “And do not say about what your tongues assert of untruth, ‘This is lawful and this is unlawful’, to invent falsehood about Allah. Indeed, those who invent falsehood about Allah will not succeed” (16:116)?! While committing terrorism, do they ignore this Quranic verse which commands Muslims to fulfil the promise as, “And fulfil every covenant, Verily the covenant will be questioned about” (17:34)?! While committing indiscriminate killing, do these brainwashed youth forget this Quranic verse which reads, “But if they intend to peace, you also incline to it...” (8:61)?! While brainwashing their members and the youth, why and why do the terrorist masterminds intentionally ignore the Quranic command which says, “And do not kill the soul which Allah has forbidden, except by right. And whoever is killed unjustly - We have given his heir authority, but let him not exceed limits in [the matter of] taking life. Indeed, he has been supported [by the law]” (17:33)?! From the above mentioned Quranic verses and Ahadith, it is known to us that killing peaceful citizens including women, children, old men, monks, destructing places of worship etc are forbidden, then why do the terrorists commit such explicit crimes?! While committing terrorism, why do they make their own decisions in preference to Allah’s decision, while the Quran says, “The decision is only for Allah. He relates the truth, and He is the best of deciders.” (6:57)?! The answers to all such questions are comprehensible in our minds that the terrorists have been brainwashed by their master-ideologues and thereby they are perpetrating those acts which are strictly forbidden in the Quran and Sunnah. But after knowing the facts, if they seek repentance [Tauba] with sincere heart and stop committing such forbidden acts, they may be forgiven, as indeed Allah is the most forgiving and merciful.   
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A regular Columnist with NewAgeIslam.com, Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi Dehlvi is an Alim and Fazil (Classical Islamic scholar) with a Sufi background and English-Arabic-Urdu Translator.